325 - The First Council of Nicaea – the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church – is held.
685 - The Battle of Nechtansmere is fought between a Pictish army under King Bridei III and the invading Northumbrians under King Ecgfrith, who are decisively defeated.
1293 - King Sancho IV of Castile creates the Study of General Schools of Alcalá.
1498 - Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama arrives at Kozhikode (previously known as Calicut), India.
1570 - Cartographer Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas.
1690 - England passes the Act of Grace, forgiving followers of Catholic James II.
1841 - Chi Psi Fraternity is founded at Union College in Schenectady, New York.
1861 - American Civil War: The state of Kentucky proclaims its neutrality, which will last until September 3 when Confederate forces enter the state.
1864 - American Civil War: Battle of Ware Bottom Church - In the Virginia Bermuda Hundred Campaign, 10,000 troops fight in this Confederate victory.
1882 - The Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy is formed.
1315 - Bonne of Luxembourg, queen of John II of France (d. 1349)
1554 - Paolo Bellasio, Italian composer (d. 1594)
1663 - William Bradford, British-born printer (d. 1752)
1726 - Francis Cotes, English painter (d. 1770)
1759 - William Thornton, West Indian-born architect (d. 1828)
1772 - Sir William Congreve, English inventor (d. 1828)
1806 - John Stuart Mill, English philosopher (d. 1873)
1830 - Hector Malot, French writer (d. 1907)
1851 - Emil Berliner, German-born telephone and recording pioneer (d. 1929)
1882 - Sigrid Undset, Norwegian author, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1949)
685 - King Ecgfrith of Northumbria (b. 645)
1285 - John II of Jerusalem, King of Cyprus (b. 1259)
1503 - Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici, Italian patron of the arts (b. 1463)
1550 - Ashikaga Yoshiharu, Japanese shogun (b. 1510)
1648 - King Wladislaus IV of Poland (b. 1595)
1713 - Thomas Sprat, English writer (b. 1635)
1722 - Sébastien Vaillant, French botanist (b. 1669)
1782 - William Emerson, English mathematician (b. 1701)
1834 - Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette, French soldier and statesman (b. 1757)
1873 - Sir George-Étienne Cartier, French-Canadian statesman (b. 1814)